Because the Communist Cuban government exercises a significant level of control over the entire island, it would be normal to assume Cuba is responsible for Havana Syndrome—and perhaps they are. Former President Trump was fairly vocal regarding his belief that the Cuban government was responsible for the attack on U.S. and Canadian Embassy diplomats and others. Leading experts in the field point to portable microwave weapons that, they believe, could cause symptoms similar to those experienced by individuals caught in the attacks.
A U.S.-based company actually made a prototype of such a weapon for the marine corps. The prototype was named Medusa, and while it was small enough to fit inside a vehicle, and was said to “incapacitate” the target, it was also considered unlikely to kill or cause permanent injury. The project was scrapped, likely due to ethical considerations regarding human experimentation. This in no way means that our adversaries, including Russia, China, and Cuba, did not continue the experiment.
James Giordano claims China has developed directed energy devices, and a second wave of Havana Syndrome injuries took place in China in 2018. Giordano believes these weapons use microwave frequencies that can disrupt brain functions with no sensation of burning. Therefore, a plausible explanation for Havana Syndrome is that an adversary of the United States miniaturized and weaponized this directed energy technology, allowing it to be used from a distance. If, in fact, the Cuban Government committed intentional acts that led to what we now call Havana Syndrome, the government could be held civilly liable.